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Silver and Champleve Enamel Bird-form Carafe. Khlebnikov. Moscow. 1874. Height 8" In the form of a stylized cockerel, this carafe has a stylized Slavonic inscription encircling it which reads, "To Drink Is No Hindrance, but Youth's Diversion."

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Pair of Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Beakers. Gregory Sbitnev. Moscow. 1910. Height 4" These beakers are of tapered cylindrical form and are colorfully enameled with flowers and geometric forms.

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Feodor Ruckert. Moscow. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Pictorial Kovsh. 1900. Length 13.l". The body of this Kovsh is finely enameled on one side with a scene of a boyar wedding and is inscribed in Cyrillic, "Honorable Wedding." The other side is enameled with a wedding feast and is inscribed in Cyrillic, "Celebration Banquet." The front of the kovsh is enameled with the imperial eagle on a sea green ground. The back of the body flanking the handle is enameled with winged horses ridden by finely robed young nobles. This piece is marked by Ovchinnikov, as retailer.

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Large Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Kovsh. 1900. Length 11". This kovsh is enameled with colorful flowers on black enamel reserves and bordered by scrolling foliage on a sea-green ground.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Large silver-gilt and Enamel Presentation Duck-form Kovsh. Length 19'. In the form of a mallard with a wide fan-shaped tail and long beak, this gousli is enameled with pastel-colored stylized flowers and foliage. The neck is enameled to simulate feathers, and the base is engraved with signatures and, inscribed in Cyrillic, "Petrograd," with the date 27 July 1917.

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Faberge, Moscow. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Kovsh. 1910. Length 9.5". The globular body is enameled with multicolored foliage and geometric forms in the Old Russian style.

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Large Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Kovsh. Maria Semyonova. Moscow. 900. Length 9" The body of the kovsh is colorfully enameled with flowers and foliate motifs, and the border is set with red hard stone cabochons.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Large Silver-gilt and Enamel Two-handled Bowl 1910. Length 22". This bowl, in the shape of a boat, is enameled with multicolored foliage and borders mounted with colored hard stone cabochons. The handles are set with faceted amethyst quartz reserves and are supported on the heads of gryphons.

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Silver-gilt and Enamel Kovsh. Ovchinnikov. Moscow. 1910. Length 6%" In style of the bird form, this kovsh is finely enameled with multicolored, pastel, stylized flowers and foliage between geometric borders. The triangular head and the geometric tail are set with cabochon amethysts. It was presented to Dr. lens Schou, personal surgeon to Christian IX, by the Empress Marie Feodorovna, daughter of the Danish King. The inscription on the base indicates this exchange and is dated 2 February 1910.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Silver Tankard. 1873. Height 7.1". The barrel of this tankard is chased with peasants returning from hay-making. The Armory Museum, Moscow.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Silver-gilt, Cloisonné Enamel, and Plaque-a-Lour Enamel Punch Set. 1890. Diameter of tray I8". This large circular tray is raised on four ball feet. The surface is enameled with panels of multicolored stylized foliage on a gilded stippled ground. The tray's center is fitted with a punch bowl in the form of a bucket, enameled en suite, and engraved in French and Cyrillic, "Souvenir of Pavlovsk, 2 July 1891." Each side of the bucket has a slogan inscribed in champleue enamel, .M. Charcot." The border of the tray has six polished circular reserves to hold six plaque-a-jour enamel footed cups. The imperial residence of Pavlovsk was begun in 1777 and was virtually completed by 1825. The initial residence was begun for Paul, and, upon Paul's accession to the throne in 1796, Pavlovsk was given the status of a town.

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Maker unknown. Moscow. Silver (Partly Gilded) and Enamel Punch Set. 1910. Diameter of tray 19.9". This set, initialed N.l.T. in Cyrillic includes a punch bowl, a circular stand, twelve cups, and a ladle. All pieces are reposes and chased in the Old Russian style with fruit and foliage. The punch bowl has a plaque enameled with two bogatyrs after Vasnetsov, and its handles are chased with gryphons and have openwork pendants. The stand is raised on six bun feet.

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Feodor Ruckert. Moscow. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Pictorial Punch Bowl and Ladle. 1910. Diameter 12" This extraordinary object, which is virtually without parallel, is reposes in high relief with legendary bogatyrs and female portrait busts in the Old Russian style, with flying eagles encircling the base. The bogatyrs hold aloft mugs of frothing ale, all exquisitely enameled in a multitude of colors. The gilded ground has a matted finish. The shoulder of the bowl is reposes with pear-shaped lobes, each of which is enameled with a flowering plant or vegetable. The rim is enameled with black bears in snowy landscapes and with luminescent windows. The handles are in the forms of bear heads with eyes set with red stones.

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Twentieth Artel. Moscow. Silver-gilt and Enameled Punch Set. 1910. Length 13.5" This set includes a large kovsh, three smaller kovshes, and a ladle, all enameled with multicolored foliage and set with colorful hard stone cabochons. The State Historical Museum, Moscow.

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Gregory Sbitnev. Moscow. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Eight-piece Punch Set. 1900. Height of bowl 9.7". This set includes a two-handled punch bowl, six punch cups, and a ladle. The bowl is of tapered circular form with four curved panels and four angular panels. The lower parts of the bodies are lobed. The set is enameled with multicolored flowers and scrolling foliage on grounds of pale yellow, purple, gray, emerald, and olive green.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Silver, Partly Gilded Samovar, Tray and Bowl. 1879. Height 22". This samovar is chased to simulate wood grain. It has pierced aprons and angular handles rising from roosters. The spigot is in the form of the head and neck of a cock.

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Eleventh Artel. Moscow. Set of Six Silver-gilt and Enamel Demitasse Cups, Saucers, and Spoons. 1910. Diameter of saucer 4.7". These cups and saucers combine three techniques of enameling. The outer borders are executed in plaque-a-jour enamel, while the inner borders are decorated in translucent enamel. The centers of the saucers and bases of the cups are enameled in the champleue technique.

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Khlebnikov. Moscow. Silver and Champleve Enamel Four-piece Tea Set 1884. Length of basket 8.5" The set includes a teapot, a covered sugar bowl, a cream jug, and a cake basket, all of which are finely enameled with brightly plumed birds among colorful foliage on a pale green ground.

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Lubavin. St. Petersburg. Silver-gilt and Enamel Eleven-piece Tea Set. 1900. Height of teapot 5.12". The set includes a teapot, a covered sugar bowl, a cream jug, two glass tea holders, two teaspoons, a caddy shovel, a lemon fork, sugar tongs, and a straining spoon. All pieces are enameled with multicolored scrolling foliage and with exotic birds flanking a monogram.

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Feodor Ruckert. Moscow. Silver-gilt and shaded Enamel Three-piece Tea Set. 1900. Height of teapot 8.14". This set, including a teapot, a covered sugar bowl, and a cream jug, is enameled with colorful foliage. The baluster bodies have multiple lobes which are enameled with flowers on grounds of aborigine, royal blue, and sea green. The teapot and the bowl have acorn finials which are enameled with swirls.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Silver-gilt and Enamel Imperial Presentation Tea Set. 1900. Height of teapot 5.5". The set comprises a teapot and a two-handled sugar bowl, both with slip-on covers, and a cream jug, all of bulbous form with shaped rims and enameled with multicolored flowers and scrolling foliage. The sugar shovel, lemon fork, tea strainer, and sugar tongs are similarly enameled. The base of the teapot is inscribed, "Cannes Golf Club, 1910. Presented by B.I.B. Grand Duke Michael of Russia. Won by Lady M. Hamilton-Russell."

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Kurlyukov. Moscow. Silver-gilt and shaded Enamel Three-piece Tea Set. 1900. Height of teapot 6.5". This set includes a teapot, a covered two-handled sugar bowl, and a cream jug. They are pear-shaped with lobed bases and are enameled with multicolored flowers and scrolling foliage.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Seven-piece Tea Set. 1900. Height of teapot 6.12". This set comprises a teapot, a sugar basket, and a cream jug, lobed and enameled with gryphons and flowering foliage on grounds of shades of blue, green, pink, and cream. The caddy spoon, sugar tongs, straining spoons, and lemon fork are enameled en suite. Although this set is marked by Ovchinnikov, it is almost certainly the work of Feodor Ruckert, whose enamels were sometimes retailed by Ovchinnikov and Faberge.

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Ovchinnikov. Moscow. Silver and Champleve Enamel Dessert Serving Set. 1878. Diameter of stand 15.7" This set comprises a bowl with a stand and a large spoon. All pieces are enameled with multicolored roosters and geometric designs. The borders are decorated with alternating translucent red and royal-blue enamel ribbons.

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Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Basket. Maker unknown. Moscow 1910. Diameter 4.1". The basket has a swing handle and is colorfully enameled with stylized foliage on grounds of avocado, blue, and olive green. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Jeweled Oval Dish. Kurlyukov. Moscow. 900. Length 10.51" This oval-shaped dish has pierced handles and is raised on four bun feet. It is enameled with swans and with white doves amongst violets, lilies-oj~the-valley, lilacs, and various other flowering foliage. The dish is mounted with colored laird stone cabochons. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Kovsh. Maria Semyonova. Moscow. 1900. Length 6.7' This kovsh is enameled with colorful foliage on grounds of Chinese red, sea green, and cream.

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Silver-gilt, Shaded Enamel, and Plaque-o-f our Enamel Sugar Basket. Sixth Artel. Moscow. 1910. Diameter at lip 3.8" The basket, with a swing handle, has lobed sides enameled with multicolored flowers on a gilded stippled ground within cable borders. The upper section of plaque-a-jour enamel is decorated with multicolored stylized foliate designs. Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Bird-form Kovsh. Ovchinnikov. Moscow. 1900. Length 9.9" This kovsh is shaped as a peacock with colorfully enameled feathers and a crested head.

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Ovehinnikov. Moscow. Silver-gilt and Enamel Punch Set. 1885. Diameter of tray 12.8" This set includes a punch bowl, tray, and eight. Cups with hook handles, and a kovsh, all pieces are enameled with multicolored flowers and scrolling foliage on gilded stippled grounds. The tray has eight reserves for the cups and a wide colorfully enameled apron.

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Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Two-handled Sugar Bowl. Sixth Artel. Moscow. 1910. Length across handles 7%". The upper border of this bowl is comprised of eight ovals which are enameled with multicolored stylized foliage. The central oval on each side is enameled with a swan floating on a pond. Each handle is in the form of a colorful siren.

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Maria Semyonova. Moscow. Large Silver-gilt and Shaded Enamel Kovsh with Matching Ladle. 1900. Length of kovsh 9". Finely enameled with colorful flowering foliage on a Chinese-red ground, the front of this kovsh is enameled with the Russian imperial eagle.

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Faberge. Moscow. Seven-piece Silver Tea and Coffee Set. 1900. Height of coffee pot 9.51" This set includes a hot-water kettle on a lamp stand, a teapot, a coffee pot, a covered sugar bowl, a cream jug, a waste bowl, and a cake basket. All pieces are reposes and chased with neo-rococo scrolls and shell work. Each piece is applied with armorials.

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Table Ornaments and Showcase Objects

Throughout the centuries in Europe and in Russia the display of silver has always been an indicator of the wealth of a household. Silver tea sets of heavy gauge silver, richly gilded or sumptuously enameled, could be displayed to great advantage on the sideboard of a rich Moscow merchant. A samovar, necessary for supplying hot water for tea, could be found in every household. Most families owned samovars of base metal such as pewter or brass, but samovars of silver were owned by the wealthy. One of the most popular forms upon which the goldsmiths and enamellers lavished their talents was the kovsh. The kovsh is a peculiarly Russian object that can be traced back in origin to the sixteenth century when it was made of wood and took the more distinguishable form of a bird. It was originally used as a dipper, but came to be used by the Tsar or Tsarina, when it was made of silver as a presentation object, much in the same way that snuffboxes were used as presentation pieces in eighteenth-century France. These imperial presentation kovshes were chased with the cipher of the reigning emperor or empress as well as with the imperial eagle. By the latter part of the nineteenth century, the kovsh had become lavishly enameled and a showpiece par excellence.